Monitor your dogs daily intake if you are ever worried about his weight. Read on to see if this small, but, sassy dog could be for you. Source 5. Jack Russell Chihuahua mix Also referred to as a Jack Chi; this is a designer breed that is known for its mild temperament and super active lifestyle. However… It is essential to make sure that you know everything there is to know about this breed before you can purchase one or rescue one for your family. Chihuahuas become excited and stressed easily, also causing shivering. They were named after the Chihuahua region of Mexico. Look at the parents to get a better idea of what your mix will look like. See more ideas about chihuahua terrier mix, terrier mix, chihuahua. It is not intended to constitute professional/veterinary advice. Although it’s the cross-breeding of a Chihuahua with each Terrier breed. The RatChas are not true Terriers, though they can exhibit similar disposition, including suspicion towards strangers, and other dogs at large, very much like their Chihuahua parents. It is believed that this breed comes from an ancient breed that was larger in size and highly valued by the Aztecs royalty. Just what it says on the tin, the Chihuahua Terrier mix can be a particularly diverse dog. Due to their small size, they don’t tolerate rough play from young children, and with the Terrier hunting genes, they may nip. From the Silky Terrier parent, they are likely to inherit a thick and silky double coat that can come in all sorts of colors. Fox Terriers are famous for their wiry coat, which may look like a suitable winter attire. This compact little dog Continue Reading →. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix breed is a mixture of a Chihuahua and a Terrier. Due to the size difference between the two parents, you will usually find that the mother (i.e. The biggest is the Chihuahua Bull Terrier, which could be ten times that. See more ideas about chihuahua terrier mix, terrier mix, chihuahua. The Ratchas are affectionate and mostly long for attention. Brindle chihuahua rat terrier mix dog looks upward from the back of a small blue pickup truck. The Chihuahua or Chi is a small-sized canine that has a confident and bold personality as well as being an alert watchdog. Some think the dogs are a cross breed. Is the Terrier a Fox Terrier? There are actually several hybrid species, due to the fact there are several varieties of terrier breeds. Very small in size these dogs are often referred to as lap dogs and can often be found curled up in the lap of their owner. Remember we mentioned how some often develop “small dog syndrome”, train your small pooch as you would a large pooch. The chihuahua terrier mix is a very individualistic breed. A Chihuahua Terrier mix is a mix of the two different types of dogs. Let’s start with one of the most petite Terrier mixes out there, the Chihuahua Terrier mix. The black color is recognized within the breed standard of the German Shepherd Continue Reading →, The Shichon, or Zuchon, is a mix breed between a Shih Tzu and a Bichon Frise. The sweet but sassy Chihuahua Terrier mix – not everyone’s cup of tea, but for active adults who like a bit of character this could be a contender. Both breeds can be demanding and enjoy being the center of attention, so you can expect your Chihuahua Terrier mix to be an attention hog. Affectionately known as the Teddy Bear Dog, because of their soft curly coat, cute-size and loveable nature, they are a very playful and loyal hybrid. Chihuahua Jack Russell Terrier Mix Puppies For Sale Information. 13. A little tri-colored puppy, chihuahua or rat terrier mix, sadly looking at the camera while wearing a protective. They are fearless, athletic and thrive in active homes and are particularly partial to agility or flyball sports. Due to the size difference between the two parents, you will usually find that the mother (i.e. What happens then when we mix one of these Terriers with a Chihuahua? These dogs like the Chihuahua German Shepherd, Chihuahua Terrier, as well the Boston Terrier Chihuahua with … As a rule of thumb, smaller dog breeds tend to live longer than their medium- and large-sized cousins. Feeding a Chihuahua Mix Dog – Diet Requirements, suffer more health complications during labor, Everything A Pet Parent Should Know Before Buying A Black Pug, Black German Shepherd – The Ultimate Breed Guide, Shichon (Teddy Bear Dog) Breed Information, Russian Bear Dog (The Ultimate Caucasian Shepherd Guide). Affenpinscher +Chihuahua = Affenhuahua. With each being a member of the toy or small dog breed, it is understandable that there would be a Chihuahua terrier mix breed. A Yorkshire Terrier parent may provide a black Chihuahua Terrier Mix. As this mix is a hybrid dog, it’s not yet recognized by the American Kennel Club, yet some of the mixes, like the Chihuahua cross Yorkshire Terrier are recognized by the International Designer Canine Registry. The Chestie have very attractive and distinct physical characteristics from both its parents. The Rat-chi was introduced for the very first time in the 1990s, and since then, it has often been claimed as the ‘best’ designer dog. You will often see Chihuahuas crossed with Rat terriers to create the Ratchi and with Yorkshire terriers to create the Chorkie. The manchester terrier chihuahua mix is the smallest of all breeds and has the honor of being one of the oldest breeds. It is the smallest mix out of all the Chihuahua mix breeds. Along with regular brushing, they will need their ears and eyes checked over and weekly teeth brushing. Chihuahuas are often described as clan dogs – where they would be more likely to tolerate another dog of the same breed or similar size. Your tireless Terrier will certainly use that. The Chihuahua Mix is not a purebred dog. Chihuahua terrier general lifespan. Small breeds often gain weight easily – as they are fed table scraps. Searching the Internet for information on Chihuahua Jack Russell Terrier mix puppies for sale is one of the best ways to find the right breeders, whether you are looking for purebred or mixed breed dogs. 8. Chorkies may have either the deer or apple-shaped heads of their Chihuahua parent. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix suits active, adult only homes. Must be within 1 hour drive of Essington, PA 19029 ~ Cute Rylee the Chihuahua & Terrier Mix was brought into a local high risk shelter after her last human passed away. Taste of the Wild High Protein Premium Dry Dog Food, Shollie – Border Collie German Shepherd Mix. Chihuahua Rat Terriers is a combination of a Rat and a Chihuahua. The best way to determine the temperament of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and understand that you can get any combination of the characteristics found in either breed. These dogs have been popular for many years among those looking for a well-rounded animal. John Woods is the Founder of All Things Dogs and leads our editorial team as our Editor in Chief. Long or short coated? Chorkie (Yorkshire Terrier + Chihuahua) Since Yorkshire Terrier is a hunting dog, the combination of this both active dog breed is great for an active dog owner who loves running and walking. Not only does food intake affect weight, so does your dog’s activity. The usual Terriers used to create this breed are: Rat Terriers are revered for their intelligence – not that old a breed, they first appeared in the States around the 1920’s-1930s. Despite their intelligence, that chase is much more exciting than you (usually)! DogAppy lists out some interesting facts about this cute little breed. We rescued a tiny puppy (believed to be chihuahua-terrier mix) from our local animal shelter. Puppy wearing a clear cone of shame dog collar. Including Rat, Jack Russell, Fox, and Yorkshire Terrier. As we have mentioned, this small dog is super intelligent. Chorkies tend to come in a variety of … 12. Chihuahua x Yorkshire Terrier = Chorkie Hope the Chihuahua / Pug mix (Chug) at about 1 year old— "Hope was rescued from an SPCA while shown during a "visit day" at a local PetCo. As we know, we can never be 100% on the result of a hybrid – they could be more Chihuahua than Terrier or vice versa. The issue is if they’ve retained the stubborn streak from their Chihuahua parent – this can make training more challenging. More often than not, small dog syndrome isn’t particularly breed specific, it’s just some owners think they don’t need to train a small dog as much as they would a large dog. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. Therefore, if you think about it, both types of dogs have their advantages and disadvantages. Lucille is a Chihuahua/rat terrier mix and is three years old. They also have a short muzzle like the Terrier and have erect pointy ears like the Chihuahua, or they may sometimes flop down. Their thick, silky double coat is often inherited from their parents, and yet their fur isn’t too challenging to groom. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix suits active, adult only homes. A Chihuahua Terrier mix is a mix of the two different types of dogs. A mix of a Chihuahua and the West Highland White Terrier, this is the dog you need to watch out for. Some are smooth coated, some are wire coated (e.g. The Chihuahua is most commonly crossed with the Rat Terrier, the Jack Russell Terrier, the Fox Terrier and the Yorkshire Terrier, to give different Terrier Mix breeds. The lifespan of this crossbreed is around 10 to 15 years. Each puppy is adorable! Due to their small size, you may find it pretty easy bathing them at home to keep their coat smelling sweet. Source 3. Hybrid dog species are crosses between two different breeds. This toy-sized designer dog is a mix between the Silky Terrier and a Chihuahua. You couldn’t do this with a large dog, you would have to distract and encourage a different behavior or pair with a reward. This sassy pooch is a result of cross breeding a Chihuahua with one of the many terriers. via Instagram: @the.littlest.rascal. They are loved for their tenacity and feistiness. The Chihuahua Fox Rat Terrier mix for sale is one of the most popular breeds for sale today. Wiry coats can be quite oily and appear dirty. Being small in size, their daily calorie intake is pretty low too. Jack Russell +Chihuahua = Jack Chi. The Chihuahua-Toy Fox Terrier mix, also known as the Taco Terrier, is a very adorable dog with some quirky personality traits. The Jack Russell Terrier is adored for its tenacity. These intelligent dogs yearn for human touch, sleeping on their masters’ laps, or trying to dig a burrow on the bed and cuddle fondly. Not only does their body like being active, so does their mind. Chihuahua terrier mix - Der Favorit unter allen Produkten. Limit your Chihuahua's unsupervised outdoor time. Check out Maya the dog. There are actually several hybrid species, due to the fact there are several varieties of terrier breeds. This produces a canine that is a bit larger than a traditional Chihuahua. This has helped me to understand his behavior much better. sire) is the Chihuahua. If you thought this small pooch could be a couch potato, you couldn’t be further from the truth. Larger in size than other Terriers, when a Chihuahua is crossed with this Terrier, they are usually on the larger size of the scale (i.e. Despite the range of terriers that are often mixed to produce this alert and intelligent pooch, their temperament is often similar. Shiba-Chi (Shiba Inu x Chihuahua) Confident, loyal, and independent is what sums up the character of a Shiba Chi. Including Rat, Jack Russell, Fox, and Yorkshire Terrier. They are seen in a range of colors including: In addition to color variation, they can be long or short coated, depending on their Chihuahua and Terrier parents. Their less-sociable-than-most-dogs nature can mean dog parks are harder to navigate, they may be barky towards other dogs, or even nip. The Chihuahua is the smallest of all dog breeds, with a breed standard that doesn't permit dogs to weigh more than 6 pounds at maturity. It is best to walk them on leash though – the Terrier in them may decide to set to chase. Pugs are full of character, which has made them a popular companion dog, especially with many royals and Continue Reading →, Some people think the Black German Shepherd is a result of a defect in the breed. Chihuahuas become excited and stressed easily, also causing shivering. So each Chihuahua Terrier Mix breed is the characteristics of different Terriers. Source 2. Like the name suggests, the Chihuahua Terrier mix is just that. Guide to choosing a chihuahua terrier mix. The breed's tiny size may make it attractive to large birds of prey or city-dwelling wildlife. Parents: Silky Terrier x Chihuahua mix. Alternatively, you may opt for the Chihuahua mix dogs that blends the features of the Chihuahua dogs with the breed of dogs that are mixed with this breed. Fox Terriers can be smooth, or wire coated; similar in temperament, it is just their appearance that differs. This makes feeding this mix very easy. Whenever you have a dog that is the “designed” offspring of two purebred parents, you have what most people call a crossbreed, … Described as independent, this is just a nice way of saying they will sometimes frustrate you. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix is a pooch of many faces and happens as a cross between the loyal and loving Chihuahua and a few common terrier breeds. If you are looking for a designer dog breed with cuteness and playful confidence, then it would be difficult to find a better crossbreed than a Chihuahua-Rat Terrier Mix… Boston Terrier Chihuahua Mix PuppiesBoston Terrier And Chihuahua Mix Dogs Breeds EverythingBoston Terrier Chihuahua Mix Great Pet Or […] The manchester terrier chihuahua mix is the smallest of all breeds and has the honor of being one of the oldest breeds. Early socialization and training are vital in reducing the chances of him developing small dog syndrome. They suit owners who have time and patience to tackle early and continued socialization and training to ensure they don’t develop “small dog syndrome”! Protein is crucial for the development of your puppy, look for a kibble feed, or raw feed, with a high percentage of protein formula. Fox Terrier Chihuahua Mix (Taco Terrier, Chitoxy) Chihuahua & Fox Terrier mix . Fox Terrier Chihuahua Mix (Taco Terrier, Chitoxy) Chihuahua & Fox Terrier mix . They love being busy and, despite their small size, can tolerate long walks easily and safely. The information and content on All Things Dogs is intended to be used for a general nature only. There are many types of Terrier pooches, and the results of crossing with the little dog often vary. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. As you probably know, there are several terrier breeds registered with the American Kennel Club. This is where their kneecap dislocates from its normal position. dam) is the Terrier and the father (i.e. Limit your Chihuahua's unsupervised outdoor time. Litters are generally small so you many find reputable breeders operate a wait list. If you are looking for a designer dog breed with cuteness and playful confidence, then it would be difficult to find a better crossbreed than a Chihuahua-Rat Terrier Mix… Hybrid dog species are crosses between two different breeds. They were named after the Chihuahua region of Mexico. In general, most coats require brushing 2-3 times a week. A Chihuahua terrier mix can be any terrier breed crossed with a Chihuahua.. Start socialization young, introduce them to people, animals, machines, equipment – everything they will tend to come across on a typical day. The Chihuahua Yorkie Mix is a cross of a purebred Chihuahua and a purebred Yorkshire Terrier, also known as Chorkie. Mobile, Ala (WKRG) — Our pet of the week is a sweet little girl ready to sit in your lap! You can see black, brown, tan, golden, white and cream. Due to the range of Terriers found in this mix, their appearance can vary significantly. So each Chihuahua Terrier Mix breed is the characteristics of different Terriers. It’s a small dog breed at about 10 to 25 inches tall, weighing between 6 to 25 pounds. The higher price tag can often be associated with the mother being a Chihuahua as they can suffer more health complications during labor. Personality of chihuahua terrier mix Character. They are a high-energy, lovable designer dog that will bond with their owner for life. A Chihuahua Terrier mix is a Chihuahua mix dog that has been crossbred with Terrier breed. Parents: Silky Terrier x Chihuahua mix. Claimed to be the best designer hybrid breed, Rat-Cha was first launched in the 1990s. The average life expectancy of a Chihuahua Terrier Mix is 15 years. Let’s see what a day in the life of caring for this dog looks like. French Bulldog Breed Information: 13 Reasons We Love Them! Photos of chihuahua terrier mix. French Bulldog + Chihuahua = French Bullhuahua. The Scotchi is one of those mixed breeds that is officially recognized by both the American Canine Hybrid Club and the International Designer Canine Registry. However, some of the most common mixes include the Fox Terrier and the Rat Terrier. Chihuahua mixes come in many shapes, sizes, and colors. Is the parent a deer head or apple head Chihuahua? Chihuahua Terrier Mix dogs are dynamic and sassy, but they can also be mischievous. All dogs respond best to positive reinforcement and reward-based training. He is a doggo that is better suited for more active adult owners. Chihuahua Mix Puppies for Sale ; Chihuahua Mix Puppies for Sale . Rat Terrier Chihuahua Mix (Rat-Cha) Rat-Chas are a crossbred version of the American Rat Terrier and the Chihuahua. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix breed is a mixture of a Chihuahua and a Terrier. They are one of the more refined-looking Chihuahua mixes, and they project quite a confident, yet approachable, aura. If a small dog is barking at something and becomes scared; you may choose to pick the dog up to remove them from the situation. The Chihuahua Terrier Mix is a cross of a Terrier breed and a Chihuahua, also known as Jack Chi or Jack Russell Chihuahua Mix. When caring for Chihuahua Terrier Mixes, you should help them be as healthy as possible so they can grow as old as 13 to 18 years of age. Boerboel Dog: What You Should Know About South African Boerboels, Labrador Names: 500 Unique, Cool & Best Names for Labs, White, black, tan, brown, bi and tri color due to the range in the terrier breeds, Energetic, tireless, active, stubborn, feisty and bright, Keep your puppy on a regular feeding schedule and let him out to go “potty” after every meal, Take him out first thing in the morning and last thing before bed, Get into a routine of letting him out at regular intervals (this may be 30-minute intervals or 1 hour intervals as he gets older), Praise/reward once puppy has gone “potty” not during, sudden excitement during will likely distract him and stop him mid flow, Take puppy to the same spot. They have their own unique personalities. dam) is the Terrier and the father (i.e. Due to the Terrier’s hunting backgrounds, careful socialization is necessary if you expect them to live with other dogs or family pets. Jan 19, 2016 - Explore Kelly Linzey's board "Chihuahua Terrier Mixes", followed by 145 people on Pinterest. He’ll pick up his own scent, Don’t punish for any accidents in the home – you want him to go potty, just in the right place. Their grooming requirements will depend on their coat type. Source 4. They have high life expectancies and come in several different coat colors. From the Silky Terrier parent, they are likely to inherit a thick and silky double coat that can come in all sorts of colors. What we end up with then is double the trouble – the intelligence and energy from the terrier and the feisty bossiness from the Chi. In this case, the Chihuahua is a tiny dog and the Terrier is also a small dog but larger. John is parent to Nala, a working lab retriever. History of the Rat Terrier Chihuahua Mix. The best way to tackle this is to socialize them from an early age and help them make the association that other dogs can be fun to be around. If you’re looking for a couch potato try his cousin. This causes increased pressure within the skull, causing brain damage and is often fatal. If you could picture a tiny terrier with the head of a Chihuahua, then you have an idea what a Jack Russell Chihuahua mix would look like. Evergreen forest in. Chibo Terrier (Chihuahua x Boston Terrier) Photo from Pinterest. At the slightest sound, they will go to check it out. 3. They are a high-energy, lovable designer dog that will bond with their owner for life. Shiba-Chi Dog. Chihuahua Terrier Mix. The Chestie is a very recently developed designer dog, and its origin cannot be traced. The Chihuahua Terrier mix is one of the most common and popular mix breeds that you can get at the moment. The most common examples include the: Intrigued to know what happens when we mix the bossy but loving Chihuahua with the tireless and intelligent terrier breeds? closer to 20 pounds). Super energetic, these guys need an active home too. A Chihuahua terrier mix can be any terrier breed crossed with a Chihuahua.. They have large and erect ears like their parent breeds. This feisty, bright and energetic pooch is a result of mating a Chihuahua with any one of the Terrier breeds. Any behavior you wouldn’t expect from a large dog; jumping up, lunging, excessive barking or nipping; don’t accept from your small dog. chihuahua terrier mix ears may be prone to earwax, so they should be cleaned. Their tail may sometimes be upright or may hang down. We’re here to tell you, those are myths. Although there are various other breeds that are considered “Chihuahua mixes”, they are often smaller, less frisky, and generally less playful. While many of the parent Terrier breeds are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), the Chihuahua Terrier Mix is … Speak with a qualified groomer to gain an understanding of your mix’s coat and how best to maintain it. These dogs have been popular for many years among those looking for a well-rounded animal. Jan 21, 2014 - Explore Reagan Little's board "chihuahua terrier mix" on Pinterest. A Chihuahua Terrier mix is a Chihuahua mix dog that has been crossbred with Terrier breed. Unser Testerteam wünscht Ihnen zu Hause schon jetzt viel Spaß mit Ihrem Chihuahua terrier mix! Breeds: Scottish Terrier and Chihuahua Mix. There are a range of symptoms including lethargy, fatigue, coughing or respiratory distress. Mobile, Ala (WKRG) — Our pet of the week is a sweet little girl ready to sit in your lap! A good quality food should meet their daily nutritional requirements including enough protein and fat. The small dog learns to jump at the owner to be picked up in a fear response, whereas the large dog learns to retreat which is a much better coping mechanism. As we’ve mentioned, this dog is best suited to active, adult only homes. A Jack Russell parent may provide white and tan coloring. Chorkies typically have the long, silky locks of their Yorkshire terrier parent. 1. Thank you! Typically, they possess short coat, but long coat can also be seen due to Chihuahua. Hier sehen Sie als Käufer unsere Top-Auswahl von Chihuahua terrier mix, bei denen die oberste Position den TOP-Favorit definiert. Brindle chihuahua rat terrier mix dog looks upward from the back of a small blue pickup truck. Fox Terrier Chihuahua Mix For Sale. They suit owners who have time and patience to tackle early and continued socialization and training to ensure they don’t develop “small dog syndrome”! The Chihuahua Mix is not a purebred dog. This adorable mix comes in a very small size, which is between 6 to 10 inches (15 to 25 cm) tall. The average height of chihuahua rat terrier mix is 12-25 pounds and height ranges 12-18 inches. Starring Chihuahua-Rat Terrier Mix. The average life expectancy of a Chihuahua Terrier Mix is 15 years. Boston Terrier +Chihuahua = Boston Huahua. Chinese Crested +Chihuahua = Chi Chi. Chihuahua x Yorkshire Terrier = Chorkie Hope the Chihuahua / Pug mix (Chug) at about 1 year old— "Hope was rescued from an SPCA while shown during a "visit day" at a local PetCo. All Things Dogs Copyright © 2020 - All Rights Reserved. Maybe it was bred simply out of curiosity, or somebody had an intention to make a breed with the best of both the purebreds. Awesome article! Chestie Origin. When caring for Chihuahua Terrier Mixes, you should help them be as healthy as possible so they can grow as old as 13 to 18 years of age. See more ideas about chihuahua terrier mix, terrier mix, chihuahua. Although small, it is very active having a playful and friendly behavior like Yorkshire Terrier. You won’t find them any taller than 10 inches, and will usually weight around 5-10 pounds. Mixed breed dog filmed by Kristyle on Mvegastyle Unplugged. The Terrier Chihuahua Mix, when socialized well can tolerate other dogs, but, is less sociable than most – they tend to prefer human company. Due to their small size, they don’t tolerate rough play from young children, and with the Terrier hunting genes, they may nip. Jan 19, 2016 - Explore Kelly Linzey's board "Chihuahua Terrier Mixes", followed by 145 people on Pinterest. The Ratchas are affectionate and mostly long for attention. In this case, the Chihuahua is a tiny dog and the Terrier is also a small dog but larger. Affiliate Disclaimer AnimalCorner.co.uk is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Early training and socialization is a very important part of bringing this pup up and reducing any chances of him developing some bad behaviors. This produces a canine that is a bit larger than a traditional Chihuahua. Chihuahuas are often bred with the smallest terriers to create a small and cute companion animal. Also known as the Bochi, Chibo, or the Bohuahua, the Boston Terrier Chihuahua Mix is the offspring of the Boston Terrier and the Chihuahua.. On average they will eat around 40 calories per pound of body weight per day. Chihuahua’s are known to be almost human-like in nature, while Terriers are especially independent and bossy. Your email address will not be published. Because of their small size, they might have a hard time intera… Chihuahua daily needs 20 to 30 minutes of exercise. Chihuahua Terrier Mix. In general, this mix is a high energy and athletic dog. One of the most common mixed breeds is the Chihuahua Terrier Mix. This dog will need upwards of 60 minutes of exercise per day. Very small in size these dogs are often referred to as lap dogs and can often be found curled up in the lap of their owner. They have dark brown eyes and the eyes bulges out a little just like the Chihuahua. Chesties are tiny sized dogs like a … Chihuahua mixes come in many shapes, sizes, and colors. They love to hang out with their people, and if not socialized and trained properly, using positive reinforcement training, of course, they can become fearful of other people. The best way to determine the temperament of a mixed breed is to look up all breeds in the cross and understand that you can get any combination of the characteristics found in either breed. Keeping the Terrier genes, the Chihuahua Terrier mix is often energetic and fatigue-proof. Chihuahua’s struggle particularly with the cold, so if your dog has retained more of their Chihuahua parent you may notice they use more calories in colder weather, trying to keep warm. This famous designer dog is a combination of the Scottish Terrier and Chihuahua. Chorkies may possess either pointy and alert, or droopy and relaxed ears. They often get closely attached to one family member of the house. via Instagram: @the.littlest.rascal. The Chihuahua or Chi is a small-sized canine that has a confident and bold personality as … Reward-based training and positive reinforcement gives you the best shot here and as a result you will have a fearless and feisty dog; loyal with his whole heart. House-breaking can be an issue in Chihuahua’s so this may become a potential problem for your Mix too, here are our top training tips: There are some common health problems found in this hybrid, including: Luxating Patella is very common in small breeds.